Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch.
Vernacular name  Aaval (Malayalam); Ayal (Tamil); Thavasai (Kannada); Papri, Kanju (Hindi) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  Kanju, Rajain (Chacko et al.,2002); Indian elm.
Synonyms  Ulmus integrifolia Roxb. (Sasidharan, 2004; Chacko et al., 2002).
Family  Ulmaceae
Distribution  Occurs throughout the greater part of India and extending to Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In Kerala, it occurs in the moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests at low elevations (Chacko et al., 2002). Sub-Himalayan tract, Kashmir to Nepal, ascending to 600 m Bihar, Bengal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the Peninsular India; upper and lower Myanmar; Sri Lanka (Bose et al., 1998).
Description  Fast growing, medium to large sized deciduous tree, with a compact crown.
Flowering season  January to February.
Fruiting season  April to June (FRI, 1981; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  These are separate and greenish yellow in colour. They are small, yellowish green, in short, lateral often compound corymbs, male and bisexual flowers mixed; perianth cleft nearly to the base, segments 8, hairy; bisexual flowers; stamens 5; ovary compressed, one-celled (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruit is a samara, 2.5 cm in diameter, on a slender stalk, wings membranous.
Fruit type  Samara.
Seeds  Seeds samara with membranous reticulately veined wings.
Seed length  3 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  2.33 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  29,300 fruits/kg (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed dispersal  Wind dispersal (Troup, 1921).
Seed Collection  Fruits are collected from the tree by lopping off the branches (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Samara collected in cotton bags are sent to the processing centre as quickly as possible (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Seeds are sun-dried (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Probably intermediate. Seeds are thoroughly dried and store under low temperature in airtight containers. Seeds do not retain viability more than 7 to 8 months (Chacko et al.,2002).
Viability period  Seeds are viable up to six months (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed emptiness  Moderate (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not essential (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 64 (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination period  7 to 20 days (Chacko et al.,2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in germination trays filled with vermiculite and watered regularly. Overhead shade is necessary. Seedlings are transplanted polybags (22.5 x 17.5 cm) filled with potting mixture when they are about 5 to 6 cm in height (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Diseases  Damping off is caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii [Corticium rolfsii] (Mehrotra and Pandey, 1998). Moderate. Thirty-three fungi, a bacterium and actinomycetes are recorded on seeds. Of these, Alternaria sp., Cercospora sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Phoma sp. are the important fungi (Chacko et al., 2001).
Medicinal properties  The bark and leaves are bitter, astringent, carminative, laxative. They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta.
Uses  Wood is used for brush-backs and handles of dusting brooms, also for indoor purpose. Leaves are used as a fodder. It is also used for reclamation of rocky stream banks, gullied and ravine lands. Bark pulp is made into hardboard and insulation boards. Seeds contain a fatty oil.
Wood properties  Wood light yellowish grey, moderately hard, no heartwood, little used except as fuel.
References  Get ...
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