Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Hydnocarpus pentandra (Buch.-Ham.) Oken
Vernacular name  Marotti, Neerutti (Malayalam); Maravetti (Tamil) (Chacko et al.,2002).
Common name  Marotti oil tree (Chacko et al.,2002).
Synonyms  Hydnocarpous wightiana Bl.; H . laurifolia Dennst. ex Sleumer; Chilmoria pentandra Buch.- Ham. (Chacko et al.,2002); Hydnocarpus inebrians Wall.
Family  Flacourtiaceae
Distribution  Common in the Western Ghats from Konkan southwards and in Kerala it occurs in semi-evergreen and evergreen forests up to 600 m (Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Moderate sized evergreen tree reaching a height of 20 m and a breast height diameter of 32 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season  February to March (Bourdillon, 1908) or in July to August.
Fruiting season  October to December (Bourdillon, 1908) or March to April; May and June (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flowers greenish yellow in solitary or few flowered, axillary cymes or fascicles. Flowers white, petals ciliate, twice as long as the ovate fimbriate scales. Flowers in short fascicles about 2.5 cm long or solitary, white, 0.6 cm in across (Bourdillon, 1908).
Fruits  Fruit is a berry, globose (Chacko et al., 2002). A large hard rinded berry, tomentose. Fruits brown, woody and tubercled, globose, 5-10 cm diameter (Bourdillon,1908).
Fruit type  Berry.
Seeds  Seeds dark grey, up to 1.5 cm long, obtusely angular, blunt at apex.
Seed length  2-2.5 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  700 to 900 seeds/kg (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Mature fruits are collected from the tree by lopping off the branches. Seed collection from the ground should be avoided, as most of the fallen seeds are predated and attacked by animals (Chacko et al.,2002).
Transportation of seeds  No special care is needed (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Pericarp is broken, depulped, and the seeds are extracted by hand and sun-dried (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed storage  Recalcitrant (CABI, 1998). Seeds do not retain viability for more than two months (Chacko et al.,2002).
Viability period  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed emptiness  Low (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed pre treatment  Soaking in cold water for 24 hrs (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination percentage  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination period  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Nursery technique  Freshly collected and pretreated seeds are sown in vermiculite in germination trays and watered regularly. The seedlings are pricked out and potted in polythene bags of 20 x 10 cm size and maintained under shade (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Low (Chacko et al.,2002).
Diseases  Moderate (21-57.5%). Ten fungi and actinomycetes were recorded. Chaetominum, Cephalosporium, and Fusarium species were the important fungi recorded on seeds (Mohanan and Anil Chandran, 2001; Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties  It is medicinally important for rheumatic and other complaints. Seed oil is used internally and externally for leprosy and worms. Seeds pound with sandal and applied to sores and ulcers.
Uses  Seeds of the tree yield hydnocarpus oil. The oil is used as an illuminent.
Wood properties  Wood whitish and perishable. Wood dull greyish white, coarse and soft. No heart, pores very small, numerous and well distributed (Bourdillon,1908).
References  Get ...
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