Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Ochlandra ebracteata Raizada & Chatterjee
Vernacular name  Velleeta (Malayalam), Eeral (Tamil) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  Reed (Chacko et al., 2002).
Synonyms 
Family  Poaceae (Graminae)
Subfamily 
Origin 
Distribution  Confined to the hilly tracts of Southern Kerala along the stream - banks (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002). In Kerala it occurs in Trivandrum district mainly in the midlands.
Description  Erect, shrubby reed-like bamboo reaching a height of 4.6 m and a diameter of 1.9 to 3.8 cm (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season 
Fruiting season  April (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  (Spikelets) green, cylindro-conical in flagellate, spicate panicles of verticellate clusters with sessile and comparatively large fertile spikelets.
Fruits  Fruit is a caryopsis, light chocolate brown in colour, oblong, somewhat wrinkled and with a conical beak (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Caryopsis
Seeds 
Seed length  3.2-4.1 cm (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  200 to 280 seeds/kg (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Seeds are collected either from the clump or from the ground (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Seeds are collected in moist gunny bags and transported to the nursery site without delay (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Except spreading out the seeds in a ventilated room, no special processing is necessary (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Recalcitrant (Seethalakshmi and MukteshKumar, 1998). Seeds remain viable for a month (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seeds retain viability for about a month (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not required (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Hypogeal (Chacko et al., 2002)
Germination percentage  57 to 73 (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002)
Germination period  3 to 10 days (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown horizontally soon after collection in raised nursery beds filled with a mixture of soil and sand (5:3 by volume) under partial shade for at least two months. Seedlings are pricked out when they attain 5 to 6 cm height and potted in polythene bags of size 23 cm x 18 cm filled with soil based potting mixture. Seedlings reach 0.5 to 1 m height within one year (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Caterpillars of Achroia grisella Fb. (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae) bore into the seeds lying on the forest floor. Feeding by this insect often injures the embryo and up to 10% of seeds are usually damaged (Chacko et al., 2002)
Diseases  Stored seeds are affected by fungi like Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Dactylaria, Mucor and Rhizopus species (Mohanan, 1997; Chacko et al., 2002)
Medicinal properties 
Uses  Culm is used for paper industry and for making basket and mats. Dried seeds are powdered and used as a cattle feed (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Wood properties 
References  Get ...
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