Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent.
Vernacular name  Pharrai, Ullu, Suana (Hindi), Pana, achi (Tamil) (Bose et al., 1998), Palakappayyani, Valpathiri (Malayalam) (Sasidharan, 2004).
Common name  Indian trumpet tree
Synonyms  Calosanthes indica Bl., Spathodea indica Vent., Bignonia indica Roxb. (Gamble, 1922; Sasidharan, 2004).
Family  Bignoniaceae
Distribution  Throughout the greater parts of India except in drier regions, chiefly in deciduous forests, but sometimes scattered in evergreen forests. Also in Andamans, Sri Lanka, and Sub Himalayan tract (up to 1100 m).
Description  A small deciduous tree with few branches, 5 to 8 m high.
Flowering season  May - August (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruiting season  October to January. Large fruits ripen in autumn (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowers  Flowers large, fleshy and purplish but not handsome in stout terminal racemes, thick and stout peduncles. Calyx is fleshy and persistent, about 2.5 cm long, corolla campanulate, 5-7 cm long and wide, purplish; stamens 5, exserted (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  A large conspicuous, 2-valved flat woody capsule, 35-60 cm long and 6 to 7cm wide, containing large number of seeds (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type  Capsule.
Seeds  Flat, surrounded by a thin transparent white papery wing, 5-6 cm long (Bose et al., 1998).
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  280-340/ 1oz
Seed dispersal  Wind and bats
Seed Collection 
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing 
Seed storage 
Viability period 
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment 
Germination type  Epigeous
Germination percentage 
Germination period 
Nursery technique 
Method of propagation  By seeds and vegetative method
Vegetative propagation 
Medicinal properties  The roots are used for inflammation, dropsy, dysentery, vomitting, wounds and fever. The leaves are used for ulcers and vitiated conditions of vata. The extract from the stem bark is tonic and also used as remedy for rheumatic swellings (Bose et al., 1998). Aqueous solutions of Oroxylum indicum bark show antibacterial activity against
Uses  Bark is used for tanning and dyeing. Stem bark and fruit are employed as mordents in tanning and dyeing industries. Wood is suitable for light packing cases, picture frames, mouldings etc.
Wood properties  The wood is pale yellow, turning brownish with age. It is a soft and light wood with coarse texture and straight grain. No heart wood (Gamble, 1922).
References  Get ...
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