Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Pterocarpus dalbergioides Roxb.
Vernacular name  Vengai (Tamil), Yerravegisa (Tel.) (Bose et al., 1998).
Common name  Andaman redwood, Andaman padauk (Bose et al., 1998).
Synonyms  Pterocarpus indicus Baker non Willd. (Bose et al., 1998).
Family  Leguminosae
Subfamily  Faboideae
Distribution  Found throughout the Andaman. Common in deciduous or semideciduous forests in the Andaman and grown in warm humid climate for the timber (Bose et al., 1998).
Description  A very large semi-deciduous or partially evergreen tree up to 40 m high with stout ascending and spreading branches, often with large buttresses; juice blood-red (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  Rainy season, i.e., June. The flowering season is short and the green samaras soon appear. May - July (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruiting season  Ripens in the following January - March.
Flowers  Yellow flowers in large panicle. Flowers are pea shaped, golden yellow, about 8 mm long; in terminal and axillary panicles (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Pods nearly glabrous, flat, orbicular, winged 5-6 cm in diameter, often two seeded (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type  Pod.
Seeds  1-1.25 cm long, dolabriform flattened, reddish brown, smooth, shiny testa and brittle.
Seed length  1-1.25 cm.
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  1,935 seeds/kg.
Seed dispersal  Wind (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Seed Collection  Collected from ground (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing  Seeds are dried in sun for few days (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Seed storage  Stored in gunny bags in a dry well ventilated place (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Viability period  Retain viability for atleast two years (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment  Soaked in cold water for 24 hrs. Seed is dried alternatively for about 10 days for direct field sowing and soaked continuously for 72 hrs for sowing in the nursery (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Germination type  Epigeous
Germination percentage  50 - 60
Germination period 
Nursery technique  Planting out of nursery raised entire seedling gives the best result in terms of survival and rate of growth. 1.2-1.5 m tall seedlings will be planted out from the nursery before rainy season at 2.4 x 2.4 m spacing (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Method of propagation  By seeds, large cuttings.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Trigonocolus brachmenae (Weevil) girdles leading shoots. Larvae of Zeuzera coffeae bore the shoots of young seedlings (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Diseases  Heartwood is attacked by Fomes fastuous causing white pocket rot (Ram Parkash et al., 1998).
Medicinal properties  The kernel of the fruit is emitic. The wood is considered as diuretic and antidysenteric.
Uses  Wood is very strong, moderately very tough; easy to saw and machine, very durable; resistant to insect attack. It is first class cabinet wood and fine, strong constructional timber; especially suitable for heavy carpentary such as billiard tables, railway carriages, ship cabins, high class furniture, decorative paneling and flooring. It frequently produces large burrs, wood of which is extremely handsome (Ram Parkash et al., 1998; Bose et al., 1998).
Wood properties  The sapwood is pale yellow or grey. Heartwood is light yellowish pink to brick red or deep purple often with darker streaks. The wood is moderately hard and moderately heavy. Pores are moderate sized to large, often subdivided in patches of pale tissue, joined by irregular, pale, wavy, interrupted bands of varying breadth (Gamble, 1922).
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