Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Terminalia paniculata Roth
Vernacular name  Pullamaruthu, Maruthu (Malayalam), Admarudu, Pillamarudu, Vellimaruthu, Pullamathu (Tamil), Ulvi, Hongal (Kannada) (Chacko et al., 2002). Pulvai, Venmarudu, Poomarudu.
Common name  Kindal, (Chacko et al., 2002) Flowering murdah (Bose et al., 1998).
Synonyms  Pentaptera paniculata(Roth) Roxb. (Chacko et al., 2002).
Family  Combretaceae
Distribution  Found in the Western regions of the Indian Peninsula from Maharastra southwards and in S. India (deciduous forests). One of the common trees occurring throughout the Western Ghats. It also occurs along the Eastern Ghats (FRI, 1984). In Kerala, it occurs in dry, moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests up to 600 m (Chacko et al.,2002).
Description  A large to very large slow growing deciduous tree, up to 25 m high and breast height diameter of 111 cm (Bose et al., 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season  Aug -Dec (Brandis,1921), July -December (Bourdillon, 1908).
Fruiting season  Ripen at December to May (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al.,2002).
Flowers  Small and white in rusty pubescent panicled spikes up to 20 cm long, bracts pubescent; calyx cup-shaped; free lobes glabrous, reddish brown, inside clothed with long brown hairs (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruit is a brick red coloured drupe 6 to 12 mm long rusty-pubescent, with one broad (15 x 8 mm) and 2 narrow wings (5 mm) (Bose et al., 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Drupe.
Seed length  1.3 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  0.6 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  26,130 to 59,966 seeds/kg; 3,880 fruits/kg (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed dispersal  Wind
Seed Collection  Lopping off the branches and from the ground (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  No special care (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Fruits are sun-dried (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Orthodox. Seed keeps well up to 5 month in sealed tin, gunny bags and in stoppered bottle (Dent, 1948; Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Five months in sealed tin and gunny bags (Dent, 1948; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  Very high. Only up to 3% seeds are usually well filled and hence nurseries producing T. paniculata seedlings will need very high quantity of seeds for sowing (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  No pre sowing treatment is necessary (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  2 to 3.75 (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  16 to 13 days (Rai, 1999; Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  The seeds are sown in vermiculite, sand or soil. Seedlings are planted out in two leaves stage to polybags of 22.5 x 17. 5 cm size filled with soil (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  By seeds
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Weevil, Nanophyes terminaliae damage the fruits. Larvae of the noctuid, Garella rotundipennis feed on the flowers and developing fruits (Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  Thirty-seven fungi belonging to 34 genera, a bacterium, and a few actinomycetes are detected on seeds. Drechslera australensis, Myrothecium sp., Graphium sp., Ascochyta sp., Cercospora sp. are the important spermoplane fungi. Phomopsis found to be seed-borne (Mohanan and Sharma, 1991; Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties  Juice of bark or flowers with melted butter and rock salt applied externally in parotitis. Power of decoction of root-bark given as a remedy for impure blood, leprosy, swellings, and worm infections. The bark has diuretic and cardiotonic properties (Bose et al., 1998).
Uses  The leaf leachates decrease seed germination of rice and cowpea and the inhibition is increased with the increase in the soaking period (Gaynar and Jadhav, 1993). Wood is used for planking, building constructions, agricultural implements, canoes and other purpose. Bark contains tanin (Chacko et al.,2002).
Wood properties  The sapwood is dirty white often with yellow blotches. The heartwood is greyish brown, rather lustrous. It is a moderately hard to hard and moderately heavy to heavy wood with medium coarse texture and usually straight grain. Pores medium sized and large, oval, often divided, connected by wavy lines of soft tissue. Rays fine, numerous, equidistant. Annual rings indistinct (Bourdillon, 1908; Purkaytastha, 1996).
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