Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Vateria macrocarpa Gupta
Vernacular name  Vellappayin, Kunthrikkappayin (Malayalam), Dhup maram, Kondricam (Tamil), Paini, Bilidupa (Kannada), Dhupa (Hindi) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  Indian copal tree (Chacko et al., 2002).
Family  Dipterocarpaceae
Distribution  Restricted to the evergreen forests of Northern Kerala (Chacko et al.,2002).
Description  Moderately fast growing, large evergreen tree attaining a height of more than 30 m and a breast height diameter of 166 cm (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al.,2002).
Flowering season 
Fruiting season  May to June (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flowers in axillary panicles, about 2.5 cm across, white.
Fruits  Fruit is a three valved oblong capsule, the apex beaked and curved (Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Capsule.
Seeds  Seeds solitary.
Seed length  8 -12 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  5 - 6 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  The ripe fruits are collected as soon as they fall on the ground, otherwise they are attacked by weevil (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  The fruits should be transported as quickly as possible since they loss viability rapidly (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Sound fruits are separated from insect attacked fruits by hand picking (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Most probably recalcitrant. Seeds can be stored in gunny bags for about a month (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  Low (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not necessary (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Hypogeal (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  80 to 98 (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al., 2002)
Germination period  2 to 35 days (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Freshly collected fruits are sown in polybags of size 22.5 x 17.5 cm filled with soil and maintained under shade and irrigation (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Nil
Diseases  No information
Medicinal properties  Resin used in indigenous medicine. The gum obtained is called Indian Copal or White damar.
Uses  Wood is used for tea-chests, packing cases, planking, railway sleepers and for the manufacture of match splints. The tree yield a gum called Indian Copal or White Damar (FRI, 1980; Chacko et al., 2002).
Wood properties  Sapwood white with a tinge of grey or red. Heartwood light grey, rough and moderately hard.
References  Get ...
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