Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Acacia chundra (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Willd.
Vernacular name  Karnali, Kannali (Malayalam) (CSIR, 1948). Kempu (Kannada); Karangali (Tamil).
Common name  Lal Khair
Synonyms  A.catechu var. sundra
Family  Leguminosae
Subfamily  Mimosoideae
Distribution  India, Sri Lanka, Burma. India - Peninsular India Western Ghats - Allover foothills and plains, < 1000m Districts - Nasik, Ratnagiri, Savanthwadi (Mah.); Uttarakannada, Hassan (Karn.); Palghat (Kerala); Tamil Nadu; Goa (
Description  Small to medium sized tree (CSIR, 1948;
Flowering season  June to August.
Fruiting season  January to March.
Flowers  Flowers yellowish white in axillary spikes (CSIR, 1948).
Fruits  Pods are compressed, dark brown when ripe containing 4-6 seeds (Purkayastha, 1996).
Fruit type  Pod.
Seeds  Seeds 3-8, about 5 mm dia., broadly ovate, compressed, dark greenish brown, smooth, shining with a hard testa (
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  30,000 to 38,000 (
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Pods are collected by lopping branches (
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing  Dried in the sun, beaten with a stick to separate the seeds and winnowed (
Seed storage 
Viability period 
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment  Soaking the seeds in cooling boiled water for 6 hrs (
Germination type  Epigeal.
Germination percentage  40 to 80 (
Germination period  5 - 7 days (
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in February to March with 2 seeds in each polybag. Weeding and watering is done regularly. Germination commences in a week. The seedlings are planted out In June-July. One seedling is retained per bag (
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Medicinal properties  The heartwood and bark are reported to be useful in irritation of the throat, cough, diarrhoea, chronic ulceration, leprosy and wounds. It is used in the treatment of skin diseases (Punjani et al., 2002).
Uses  Wood is used for posts, beams and for agricultural implements. The heartwood yields a red gum.
Wood properties  The heartwood is deep red or dark reddish brown.
References  Get ...
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