Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
Index Page Prior Record Next Record


Scientific Name  Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.
Vernacular name  Plavu, Pilavu, Chakka (Malayalam); Palamaram, Murasapilapalam (Tamil); Kathal (Hindi) (Bose et al., 1998).
Common name  Jackfruit tree, Kathal.
Synonyms  Artocarpus integrifolius auct. non L.f. (Sasidharan, 2004).
Family  Moraceae
Subfamily 
Origin  Western Ghats in India.
Distribution  Throughout India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It is cultivated in humid tropics and abundantly in the eastern tropics. Native of Western Ghats in India (Bose et al., 1998).
Description  A large monoecious evergreen tree, 18-25 m in height (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  December to March.
Fruiting season  March to June.
Flowers  Flowers are small, unisexual and regular. Male flowers crowded on cylindrical receptacles, female flowers crowded on globose receptacles-both cauliflorous. Flower heads at first covered with leathery stipules; male heads cylindric, 5-15 cm long (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruits multiple, large, fleshy, globose or oblong. The fruit contains a yellowish juicy sheath with strong flavour in which large number of seeds are embedded. Fruits obovate, cylindric, greenish, sharply pointed tubercles, up to 60 cm long, hanging from large branches or trunk, containing soft, edible pulp and many kidney-shaped fruits (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type 
Seeds  Seeds oval or kidney shaped, with membranous testa, cotyledons unequal (Raju, 2002).
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  45-95 seeds/kg.
Seed dispersal  Birds, Squirrel, Rabbit.
Seed Collection 
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing 
Seed storage  Seeds stored in saw dust or charcoal give 93% germination even after 20 days (Baghel et al., 2003). Seeds stored for long loose seed viability (Singh et al., 2003).
Viability period  Viability can be increased by storing seeds in a refrigerator for 45 days, compared with only 4 days viability in normal condition (Sharma and Mohan, 1991). Seeds stored in saw dust or charcoal give 93% germination even after 20 days (Baghel et al., 2003). Seeds stored for long loose seed viability (Singh et al., 2003).
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment  Removal of outer thin leathery seed coat and soaking in water for 8 hrs improves germination. Biotin (10 ppm) and kinetin (50 ppm) treatments of seeds have a positive influence on vigour index (Prakash, 1998). Treatment with 100 ppm GA shows positive influence on germination percentage (95.33%). In addition, seedling height, span of germination, and speed of germination are also affected (Singh et al., 2002).
Germination type  Hypogeal.
Germination percentage  75
Germination period 
Nursery technique 
Method of propagation  By seeds. Approach and bud grafting (Swaminath et al., 1989).
Vegetative propagation  Approach and bud grafting (Swaminath et al., 1989).
Pests 
Diseases 
Medicinal properties  The leaves and fruits have medicinal properties. The leaves are useful in fever, boils, wounds, skin diseases with vitiated conditions of vata and pitta. The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling, tonic and are useful in ulcers (Prajapati et al., 2003).
Uses  Unripe fruits are used as vegetable. Fruits constitute a rich source of carbohydrate and essential amino acids. A yellow dye extracted from wood is used for dyeing clothes (Prajapati et al., 2003).
Wood properties  The heartwood is bright yellow in colour but turns light brown on exposure. It is fairly strong and durable.
References  Get ...
Designed & Developed: Jyothi