Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Artocarpus hirsutus Lam.
Vernacular name  Ayiniplavu, Anjili (Malayalam); Aini (Tamil); Anjili (Kannada) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  Wild jack fruit (Chacko et al., 2002).
Family  Moraceae
Origin  Endemic to the Western Ghats of India (Chacko et al., 2002).
Distribution  Evergreen forest of the W. ghats from Konkan southwards (up to 1333 m). Also found in the deciduous forests. Medicinally Artocarpus hirsutus shows a wider ecological amplitude with presence in disturbed and undisturbed evergreen forests (Mathachen et al., 2004).
Description  A very tall handsome evergreen (50 m) with a straight clean stem and dense foliage (Prajapati et al., 2003).
Flowering season  December to March.
Fruiting season  Ripen during May to June, May to July (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Yellowish green flower heads. They are present on axillary, pedunculate receptacles, the sexes are separate. Male receptacle cylindric, slender, pendulous, 5-10 cm long, sepals 2, united below (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Yellow ovoid, about size of the lemon, covered with 6 mm spines. Fruit, a sorosis, yellow colour when ripe, spiny, tomentose, 8 to 12 x 6 to 8 cm size contains many oblong-globose white smooth seeds (Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Sorosis.
Seeds  White numerous, 1.2-1.8 cm long
Seed length  1.2-2 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  2,315 seeds/kg (Chacko et al., 2002); 1,400 seeds/kg (Carlowitz, 1991 from Chacko et al., 2002)
Seed dispersal  Squirrel.
Seed Collection  Fruits can either be collected from the tree or from the ground after fall. However, it is advisable to collect the fruits from the ground soon after they fall (Chacko et al.,2002).
Transportation of seeds  Fruits collected in cotton / plastic bags should be transported as early as possible; they should remain ventilated during transport (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed processing  The seeds are extracted by hand, washed and air-dried (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed storage  Recalcitrant (CABI, 1998 from Chacko et al., 2002). Seeds can be stored only for one month (Chacko et al.,2002).
Viability period  Seed is viable for about a month under natural conditions (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed emptiness  Low (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not required (Chacko et al., 2002)
Germination type  Hypogeal (Troup, 1921 from Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  80 (Sen Gupta, 1937); 30 to 70 (Carlowitz,1991 from Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  14 to 56 days (Sen Gupta, 1937 from Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Fresh seeds are sown in plastic trays with vermiculite and watered regularly. Seedlings, soon after germination are pricked out in poly bags of size 20 cm x 10 cm filled with potting mixture. Longer polythene bags are used if the seedlings are to be maintained in the nursery for longer periods (Chacko et al.,2002). Artocarpus hirsutus planted in polybags and arranged either under full sunlight or 50% shade (in a thatched shed) in a nursery. Growth was monitored periodically over a year (Gopikumar et al., 1999).
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Diseases  Medium (41 to 55%). Eleven fungi and a bacterium are recorded. Chatomium sp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Chalaropsis, are the important storage moulds (Mohanan and Anil Chandran, 2001 from Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties  The ripe fruits are sweet, sour, cooling and are useful in vitiated conditions of vata and pitta.The unripe fruits are sour, astringent, sweet, indigestible and constipating.
Uses  Wood used for house and boat building, furniture and other purposes. Fruits constitute a rich source of carbohydrates and essential amino acids.
Wood properties  Moderately hard, heartwood yellowish brown, durable, of very good quality. Sapwood white (Gamble, 1922).
References  Get ...
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