Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Calamus hookerianus Becc.
Vernacular name  Velichural, Vanthal, Kakka chural, Kallan chural, Chenthakara (Malayalam) (Chacko et al.,2002).
Common name 
Synonyms 
Family  Arecaceae / Palmae
Subfamily 
Origin 
Distribution  Occurs in the evergreen forests up to 1000 m throughout the Western Ghats in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (Renuka, 2000; Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Spiny, clustering, medium sized, climbing canes. Stem with sheath measures about 4 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm without sheath (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season  January to July.
Fruiting season  April to December (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Inflorescence branched, dioecious up to 5 m long, with 3 sepals; male flower in 3 order branched inflorescence, with 3 sepals, 3 petals and 6 stamens.
Fruits  Fruits are sub-globose, scales are arranged in 18 rows, yellowish-brown with a dark brown border. Endosperm not ruminate (Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type 
Seeds  1 seeded.
Seed length  1.0 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  0.8 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  4980 seeds/kg (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Fruits are collected from the plant by slowly pulling down the fruit-bearing branches when the fruits attain golden yellow colour (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Fruits are transported to the nursery immediately after collection. It is advisable to carry them as bunches in moist gunny bags (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  The fruits are de-pulped after soaking in water for 24 to 48 hrs and removing the fleshy disintegrated pericarp by rubbing between the palms. The seeds are then cleaned by washing in water several times and stored in moist sawdust so that seeds do not dry up (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Recalcitrant. Seed storage is not recommended. However, seeds store well in moist sawdust for one month (Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seeds retain viability for one month (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  No pretreatment, other than de-pulping is needed (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Adjacent ligular (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 90 (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  3 to 4 months (Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in raised nursery beds filled with soil-sand mixture. After sowing, seeds are covered with a thin layer of sawdust (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties 
Uses  It produces medium diameter rattan extensively used for furniture and basket making (Chacko et.al., 2002).
Wood properties 
References  Get ...
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