Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Calamus pseudotenuis Becc. ex Becc.& Hook.f.
Vernacular name  Chooral (Malayalam); Perumperambu (Tamil); Betta (Kannada) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name 
Family  Arecaceae / Palmae
Distribution  Occurs in the evergreen forests, generally above 750 m in the Western Ghats region of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Also found in Sri Lanka (Renuka, 2000; Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Clustering moderate sized canes. Stem with sheath measures up to 3.5 cm in diameter and without sheath about 2.5 cm (Chacko, 2002).
Flowering season  October to April.
Fruiting season  April to November (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flowers dioecious in very long, branched inflorescence.
Fruits  Greenish yellow fruits with dark brown border. Fruit size is 1.5 x 0.8 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type 
Seeds  1 seeded.
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  4714 seeds/kg (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Fruits are collected from the plant when they are golden yellow, by slowly pulling down the fruit-bearing branches after cutting them at the base (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Fruits are transported to the nursery immediately after collection. It is better to carry them as bunches in moist gunny bags (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  The fruits are de-pulped by soaking in water for about 24 to 48 hrs and remove the fleshy disintegrated pericarp by rubbing between the palms. The seeds are then cleaned by washing in water several times and can be stored in moist sawdust up to one week (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Recalcitrant. Seed storage is not recommended; however, seeds can be stored in moist sawdust for a short period (Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seeds retain viability up to a month (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  No pretreatment other than de-pulping, is needed (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Adjacent ligular, a short plug emerges from the seed from which roots are produced along with an erect swelling (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 85 (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  30 to 40 days (Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in raised nursery beds filled with soil-sand mixture (3:1). After sowing, seeds are covered with a thin layer of sawdust. Partial shade is necessary. Seedlings are potted in polythene bags during the 4-leaved stage when the seedlings attain around 3-4 cm height, ie., usually for this species it takes up to 1 to 1 1/2 months, after germination. No major disease or pest problem is encountered. One year old polypotted seedlings of 20 to 30 cm length are outplanted in the field (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties 
Uses  It is mainly used to make basket weaving and furniture (Chacko et al., 2002).
Wood properties 
References  Get ...
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