Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Calamus thwaitesii Becc. & Hook.f.
Vernacular name  Pannichural, Thadiyan chural, Vandi chural (Malayalam); Tadiperumbu (Tamil); Handibetha (Kannada) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name 
Family  Arecaceae / Palmae
Distribution  Occurs in the evergreen and semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests between 75 to 900 m throughout the Western Ghats from Maharashtra to Kerala. It is also reported from Sri Lanka (Renuka, 2000 from Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Very robust clump-forming large cane. Stem with sheath measures up to 6 cm in diameter and up to 3.5 cm without sheath (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season  October to June.
Fruiting season  April to May (Chacko et al.,2002).
Flowers  Flowers distichous, male-rachilla, 15 cm long, involucre cup shaped.
Fruits  Fruit is a capsule, ovoid, scales are with median grooves and are arranged in 12 vertical rows, yellow with deep brown margins. Measures 2 x 1.5 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Capsule.
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  852 seeds/kg (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Fruits are collected from the plant when they attain golden yellow in colour, by slowly pulling down the fruit-bearing branch (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Fruits are transported to the nursery immediately after collection. It is better to carry them as bunches, in moist gunny bags (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  The fruits are de-pulped after soaking in water for about 24 to 48 hrs and removing the fleshy disintegrated pericarp by rubbing between the palms. The seeds are then cleaned by washing in water several times and stored in moist sawdust so that seeds do not dry off (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed storage  Recalcitrant. Storage is not recommended; however, seeds can be stored in moist sawdust for about a month without loss of viability (Chacko et al.,2002).
Viability period  Seeds retain viability for about a month (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed emptiness  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed pre treatment  No pretreatment other than de-pulping (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Adjacent ligular (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination percentage  90 to 95 (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination period  36 to 120 days (Chacko et al.,2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in raised nursery beds filled with soil-sand mixture (3:1). After sowing, seeds are covered with a thin layer of sawdust. Partial shade is necessary. Seedlings are potted in polythene bags during the 4-leaved stage when the seedlings attain around 3-4 cm height, ie., usually for this species it takes 1 to 1 1/2 months, after germination (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al.,2002)
Diseases  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Medicinal properties  Stem sap of Calamus thwaitesii is used as an antifertility drug (Bhandary et al., 1995).
Uses  It produces best quality large diameter cane used extensively for furniture making (Chacko et al., 2002).
Wood properties 
References  Get ...
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