Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Cassia javanica Linn.
Vernacular name  Java-ki-Rani (Hindi); Konne, Vakai (Tamil) (Bose et al., 1998)
Common name  The java pink cassia, Apple blossom shower, Javamese cassia (Troup, 1921).
Synonyms  Cassia bacillus
Family  Leguminosae
Subfamily  Caesalpinioideae
Distribution  Native of Java, Malaya, Hawai, Mauritius and the Philippines, Mumbai and other parts of India. Planted in tea gardens (Troup, 1921).
Description  A medium sized and beautiful tree almost horizontal, spreading long branches, forming an umbrella like canopy, trunk short (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  April - May.
Fruiting season  December - April. They commence ripening in December - January and continue ripening till March - April (Troup, 1921).
Flowers  Bright rose or pink, fragrant, 2 cm across, in open clusters, mostly on short, leafless branches; calyx segments 5, reddish petals oblong, deep pink or dull reddish; stamens 10, 3 of which much longer, with an ovoid swelling in middle of the filament (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Pods are like that of Cassia fistula cylindircal, 45 to 60 cm long, dark brown, rather smooth, flesh dry, not pulpy (Troup, 1921).
Fruit type  Pod.
Seeds  Seeds 70 to 80, flattened, smooth and shiny brown. The water pervious capacity of the seeds of Cassia javanica is directly proportional to the presence and absence of waxy deposition on their seed surface. This nature of seeds is useful in assessing germination capacity (Kanak-Sahai, 2004).
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  5460-6400 seeds /kg (Madras seed) (Troup, 1921).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection 
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing 
Seed storage 
Viability period  Seed viability was calculated after performing tetrazolium test and seed germinability was tested using Blotter method. Percentage of viability varied from species to species even under the same storage conditions. Seed health at low temperature storage condition and prevailing relative humidity is responsible for enhanced viability and more germinability of seeds (Chitra-Arya et al., 2006).
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment  Presoaking in hot water for 48 h give 35% germination. Sulfuric acid treatment for 10 min is effective in bringing about germination of 53%. Treatment with KNO3 and thiourea are also effective in breaking seed dormancy. Approximately 50% of the seeds germinate 30 days after treatment. Treatment with gibberellic acid also enhance the total germination percentage (Khan, 2001).
Germination type  Epigeal.
Germination percentage  25 to 52
Germination period 
Nursery technique 
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Medicinal properties  It is used medicinally as a substitute for Cassia fistula.
Uses  The bark can be used as tanning material in leather processing and has ornamental value. Stem bark of Cassia javanica contains glucoside (3-carbomethoxynaphtho [1,2-b]-3',3'-dimethylpyran-4-O- beta -glucopyranoside) (Rashmi-Sanghi et al., 2000).
Wood properties  The wood is hard and and mainly used for handles and tools of agricultural implements.
References  Get ...
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