Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. ex Hk. f.
Vernacular name  Odugu (Malayalam) (Sasidharan, 2004); Oduvan, Wodan, Wodayu waddan (Tamil) (Gamble, 1922); Garari (Hindi) (Bose et al., 1998).
Common name 
Synonyms  Cluytia collina Roxb., Lepidieropsis orbicularis Muell. Arg. (Troup, 1921). Clutia collina Roxb. (Sasidharan, 2004).
Family  Euphorbiaceae
Distribution  In India from Simla to Bihar, Western Peninsula; Sri Lanka (Bose et al., 1998). Common in many parts as far as the Ganges river and Chota Nagpur, especially in the Singhbhum district. It is one of the commonest trees in some of the dry types of mixed forests, and thrives on dry rocky ground, where it often becomes more or less gregarious (Troup, 1921).
Description  A small tree, up to 8 m high (Gamble, 1922).
Flowering season  February to March.
Fruiting season  October to November, March to April (Troup, 1921).
Flowers  Flowers yellowish green, in small axillary and shortly spicate clusters, silkly villous; calyx 6 mm across; petals fleshy, narrow, incurved (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Capsules globose, woody, 3-rarely 4-lobed, 1.5-1.8 cm in diameter, shining brown (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type  Capsule.
Seeds  Seeds 3-4 mm in diameter, globose, brown (Bose et al., 1998).
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight 
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection 
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing 
Seed storage 
Viability period 
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment  24-h soaking of seeds in boiled water and 10 min soaking in concentrated sulfuric acid (Archana-Sharma et al., 1999).
Germination type 
Germination percentage  Germination is 31.8% for lighter seeds and 83.8% in the mid-weight seeds (Quraishi et al., 1996).
Germination period  Germination starts on day 10 and is complete by day 19 (Quraishi et al., 1996).
Nursery technique 
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Medicinal properties  Fruits act as violent gastrointestinal irritant (Bose et al., 1998). Leaves of C. collinus contains diphyllin glycoside called cleistanthin A having anticancer potential (Pradheepkumar and Govindaswamy- Shanmugam, 1999).
Uses  C. collinus leaf extracts have antifeedant activity against Spodoptera litura (Arivudainambi and Baskaran, 2004), because of the presence of lactone glycosides (Arivudainambi et al., 2006). Used for the purposes of suicide and homicide, as well as for medicinal use, also used to procure abortion (Amerjothy et al., 2001; Shashiraj-Eswarappa et al., 2003; Sarathchandra and Balakrishnamurthy, 1998).
Wood properties  Wood dark reddish-brown, tough hard, close-grained; heart-wood small (Gamble, 1922). Wood blocks of heartwood of C. collinus are very resistant to decay fungi (both brown and white rots) with a mean weight loss of less than 6% (Remadevi et al., 2006).
References  Get ...
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