Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Dalbergia paniculata Roxb.
Vernacular name  Pinekanni, Pachilamaram, Vettutholi (Malayalam), Poraputchalia, Adukkuvagia Painganni (Tamil), Dhobein, Passi, Satpuria Pachari (Hindi) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name 
Synonyms  D. nigrescens Kurz (Bose et al., 1998).
Family  Leguminosae
Subfamily  Faboideae
Origin 
Distribution  Distributed in the forests of Uttar Pradesh, Central India, Western Peninsula and Myanmar (Bose et al., 1998). In Kerala, it is found in the dry deciduous forests (FRI, 1983; Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Moderately fast growing, medium sized to large deciduous tree, with irregularly fluted trunk attaining a height of 25-30 m and a breast height diameter of 51 cm (FRI, 1983; Chacko et al., 2002; Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  March to September; April-June (Bose et al., 1998)
Fruiting season  September to October and continue till March throughout the year (FRI, 1983; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flowers in copious axillary and terminal panicles with racemose-corymbose branchlets. Bluish white, nearly sessile, crowded at short, densely brown, silky racemes, arranged in compact terminal panicles; calyx 3 mm long, densely silky; corolla twice the length of calyx (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruit is a pod narrowed at both ends (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type  Pod.
Seeds  Seed ellipsoid but sub-reniform at base, brown coloured and smooth (FRI, 1983; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed length  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed weight  7,700 seeds/kg (FRI, 1983; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Pods are beaten off the trees using a long stick (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Pods are gathered in cotton / jute bags and transported. No special care is needed.
Seed processing  Pods are dried in sun for 3 to 4 days and stored after removing dead leaves, portion of twigs and other foreign matter. No effort need be made to extract seeds from the indehiscent pods (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Probably orthodox. Pods can be stored in sealed tins, gunny bags or baskets after drying. Careful drying is essential as viability is rapidly reduced if pods not dried before storing. Seeds to be used in the same season may even be heaped on floor (Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seed is viable up to six months (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  Moderate (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not necessary (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 90 (FRI, 1983; Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  7 to 25 days (Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seedlings raised in germination trays are pricked out into polythene bags of size 20 x 10 cm, when they are about 5 to 6 cm height (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Low (Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties 
Uses  Leaves are used as fodder. The bark is chewed with betel in Assam. The wood is used for building purposes and for musical instruments (Bose et al., 1998).
Wood properties  The wood is greyish or yellowish white without any distinct heartwood. It is a soft and light wood with straight grain and coarse texture. It is a diffuse porous wood with 1-2 mm thick concentric layers of darker phloem tissues. Pores moderate sized scanty often subdivided. Medullary rays fine, fairly numerous (Gamble, 1922).
References  Get ...
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