Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Dalbergia sissoides Grah. ex Wight & Arn.
Vernacular name  Eetti, Veetti, Karitti (Malayalam), Thothagatti (Tamil), Chelabetti (Kannada) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  Rose wood (Chacko et al., 2002).
Synonyms  Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. var. sissoides (Grah. ex Wight & Arn.) Baker (Chacko et al., 2002; Sasidharan, 2004).
Family  Leguminosae
Subfamily  Faboideae
Distribution  Occurs in the south west part of Peninsular India. In Kerala, it is fairly common in moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests up to 1,500 m (Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Slow growing large deciduous tree resembling Dalbergia latifolia, attaining a height of 30 m and a breast height diameter of 103 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season  January to March.
Fruiting season  October to January; Available in India during February (Thothathri, 1987; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flowers white, in small terminal panicles of about 12 together. Stamens 9, united in a sheath.
Fruits  Pod, tapering at both ends.
Fruit type  Pod.
Seeds  Reniform and deep brown to balck seeds (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed length  5-7 mm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  3-5 mm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness  1-2 mm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed weight  26,000 to 46,000 seeds/kg (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Pods are collected from trees by lopping the branches (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Pods can be packed in jute / cloth / polythene bags and transported (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  The pods are dried in the sun and seeds extracted manually by crushing the pods, or pods are dried in oven at 50oC for 3.5 h and seeds extracted by crushing the pods. Winnowing to clean the seeds (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Probably orthodox (Chacko et al., 2002). Seeds can be stored in gunny bags or sealed containers for 6 months (Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  The seeds keep well in gunny bags for 6 months, thereafter the seeds rapidly deteriorate (Dent, 1948; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  26 to 38% (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not necessary (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 89 (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  2 to 11 days (Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in germination trays in vermiculite and watered. The seedlings are pricked out into polythene bags of size 22.5 x 17.5 cm, when they are about 5 to 6 cm height. Seedling collar rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani occurs in nursery, which can be controlled by application of fungicide, carboxin (0.1%) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  By seeds and vegetative method.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  The bruchids Bruchus pisorum L., B.maculatithorax Pic., and Bruchidius uberatus Fb. are reported to cause damage to stored seeds (Sensarma et al., 1994; Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  More than 24 fungi are recorded. Species of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, etc. are the important storage moulds. Alternaria sp., Drechslera sp., Bipolaris sp., Fusarium sp. are the important field pathogens associated with the seeds (Mohanan and Geetha Varma 2001; Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties 
Uses  The wood is used for constructions, furniture, veneer, etc. (Chacko et al., 2002).
Wood properties  Sapwood yellowish white, heartwood purple or dark purplish brown, with darker streaks, extremely hard, close grained, with very numerous, irregular, wavy, interrupted concentric lines.
References  Get ...
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