Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees
Vernacular name  Kallanmula (Malayalam), Kalmungil (Tamil), Lathi bans, Bans (Hindi), Sannabiduru, Kib (Kannada) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  Male bamboo, Solid bamboo (Chacko et al., 2002).
Synonyms  Bambusa pubescence Lodd.; B. tanaea; B.stricta Roxb. (Chacko et al., 2002).
Family  Poaceae (Graminae)
Subfamily 
Origin 
Distribution  Widely distributed in semi-arid and arid zones. It occurs in decidous forests throughout the country except in higher Himalayas or the north-east upto an altitude of 1200 m. In Kerala it occurs in the dry deciduous forests (Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  A densely tufted deciduous, bamboo, with culms reaching 8 to 16 m high and 2.5 to 8 cm diameter (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002) with strong thick walled or solid culms varying much in size according to locality (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  November to April (Ravindra Sharma, 2003).
Fruiting season  April to June; April to May (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Inflorescence is a large panicle of large dense globular heads, 4-5 cm apart; rachis rounded, smooth; spikelets spinescent, usually hairy; the fertile intermixed with many sterile smaller ones, 7.5-12 mm, with 2-3 fertile flowers; empty glumes 2 or more, ovate, spinescent, many-nerved; flowering glumes ovate; stamens long exserted; filaments fine; anthers yellow, shortly apiculate; ovary turbinate, stalked (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruit is a caryopsis and fusiform with obtuse or aristate rostrum at the apex coverd with white pubescence (Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Caryopsis.
Seeds  Caryopsis is a brown, ovoid to sub-globose and fusiform (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed length  7-7.3 mm (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width  2.98-3.33 mm (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  20,000 to 33,000/kg (Kindt et al., 1997; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Seeds are collected by sweeping the ground under the flowered clumps (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998). Seeds may also be collected by spreading a cloth or tarpaulin sheet below the flowered clumps (Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  Seeds are collected in plastic bags or gunny bags and transported to the processing centre without delay (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Mature fruits and chaff are separated by winnowing and seeds are dried in shade for about 3 days (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Orthodox. The seeds should be dried before storage and stored in sealed tins. The seeds can be stored up to 3 years by keeping silica gel or up to 5 years with anhydrous calcium chloride in a desiccator or under cold storage in deep freezer at -18oC, reducing the moisture content to 8% (Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seeds retain viability up to one year if stored in sealed tins (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  Cold water soaking for 24 to 48 hrs (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002). Soak in cold water for 2 to 3 hrs (Edwards and Naithani, 1999).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  21 to 61 (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh Kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  7 to 17 days (Seethalakshmi and Muktesh kumar, 1998; Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown directly in nursery beds during March to May in patches and covered with soil. Partial shade is necessary for initial establishment of the seedlings. Seedlings are pricked out when they attain 5 to 6 cm of height, potted in polythene bags of 22.5 x 17.5 cm size filled with a potting media containing 3 parts forest top soil one part sand and one part powdered farm yard manure. One-year-old polypotted seedlings are transplanted in the field (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  Direct sowing. Rooted culm cuttings and micropropagation (Troup,1921).
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  A sap sucking insect Udonga montana (Dist.) Heteroptera: Pentatomidae attacks the inflorescence of D.strictus. Adult bugs and nymphs suck the sap from the seed and affects its developments. Stored seeds are affected by the grain moth Sitotroga cerealella oliv. (Lepidoptera:Gelachidae) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  Bipolaris sp., Fusarium sp., Exserohilum sp., Phomopsis sp., are the important seed-borne fungi (Mohanan, 1997; Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties  The clums are used as tonic and astringent. The silicacious matter at the nodal joints of this bamboo is medicinal as a cooling, tonic and astringent (Ravindra Sharma, 2003).
Uses  The bamboos are strong, elastic and in use for all purposes, for building and mat work. It acts as soil binder and thus helps in checking the soil erosion. Wood is used for paper, construction and agricultural implements (Troup, 1921).
Wood properties 
References  Get ...
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