Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.
Vernacular name  Vazhapunna, Kodapunna, Pattipunna, Malampunna (Malayalam) (Sasidharan, 2004); Naytekku, Pinnai (Tamil) (Gamble, 1922); Aggai (Hindi) (Bose et al., 1998).
Common name  Naitheku, Toothed dillenia.
Synonyms  Colberatia coromandeliana DC.; Dillenia floribunda Hook.f. & Thoms.; Dillenia pilosa Roxb., Dillenia angusta (Troup, 1921).
Family  Dilleniaceae
Subfamily 
Origin  The tree is native of deciduous forests all over India.
Distribution  The tree is native of deciduous forests all over India. It is a very common tree in certain types of lower mixed deciduous forests on alluvial ground. It is also grown in China (Bose et al., 1998).
Description  A medium-sized to large evergreen tree, attaining a height up to 16 m, with a rounded crown (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  March to April (Troup, 1921; Bose et al., 1998).
Fruiting season  May to June (Troup, 1921); June to August (Bose et al., 1998).
Flowers  Flowers numerous, fragrant, yellow, sweet scented, about 2.5 cm across, borne on the branches, sepals broadly elliptic; petals 2 cm long; stamens numerous; carpels 5 (Bourdillon, 1908; Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruit is berry like, orange yellow in colour, succulent, edible, about 1.5-2 cm in diameter (Purkayastha, 1996).
Fruit type 
Seeds  Seeds about 0.5 x 0.25 cm, rounded or angular, dark brown, smooth shining, testa hard, but not difficult to break (Troup, 1921).
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  37400-51200 seeds/kg (Troup, 1921).
Seed dispersal  Animals, Birds (Troup, 1921). Elephants (Vinod and Cheeran, 2000).
Seed Collection 
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing 
Seed storage 
Viability period 
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment 
Germination type  Epigeal.
Germination percentage  10 to 15.
Germination period 
Nursery technique 
Method of propagation  By seeds.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests 
Diseases 
Medicinal properties 
Uses  Bark contains tannin and yield a fibre used for cordage. The buds and fruits are eaten raw or cooked. The dry leaves are used for polishing ivory and horns. Fatty oil from seeds has been found to contain medium chain fatty acids which are in great demand now (Mamta Negi et al., 2002). The leaves are sometimes used for plates. The wood is
Wood properties  The wood is reddish grey, sapwood is yellowish brown. It is moderately hard and heavy wood and is used for house posts, rafters, planking and panelling. Annual rings are marked by a narrow belt in the outer edge without pores. Pores small and moderate sized, many of them filled with a white substance, which is visible both on the
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