Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project


Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Diospyros ebenum J. Koenig
Vernacular name  Karimaram, Karingali (Malayalam), Abnus, Ebans (Hindi), Balemara, Karemara (Kannada), Karingali, (Chacko et al., 2002). Acha, Tumbi (Tamil).
Common name  Ebony persimmon (Chacko et al., 2002).
Synonyms  D. sapota Roxb. (Bose et al., 1998).
Family  Ebenaceae
Subfamily 
Origin 
Distribution  Occurs in the dry evergreen forests of the Deccan. In Kerala, it occurs in the dry deciduous forests (Purkayastha, 1996).
Description  Slow growing, small to moderate sized evergreen tree attaining a height of 15 m and a breast height diameter of 25 cm (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowering season  February to April. In Sri lanka, flowers about March, but the flowering season is irregular (Sahni, 2000).
Fruiting season  February to April, September to October (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Pale greenish yellow,1 cm long before expansion, lobes 4 (Sahni, 2000). Male flowers: 3-12 together or less and very often 3, subsessile or in shortly pedunculate cyme; calyx about 4 mm long, infundibuliform; corolla tubular, about 9 mm long; lobes ovate, greenish yellow; stamens 16 or more, very unequal; female flower: solitary; calyx longer than male; lobes 4, ovate, acute; staminodes 8; ovary 8-celled (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Fruit is a berry, sub-globose, greenish black (Chacko et al.,2002).
Fruit type  Berry.
Seeds  Seeds 4 to 6, brownish black, smooth and shiny (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed length  1 cm (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  9,170 seeds/kg (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Fruits are collected from the tree by shaking the branches manually. Seeds can also be collected from the ground (Chacko et al.,2002).
Transportation of seeds  Fruits or seeds collected in the polythene bags are transported to the processing centre at the earliest (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Fruits are de-pulped and the seeds are dried before storage (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Dried seeds can be stored for two months (Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  2 months (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed emptiness  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed pre treatment  Cold water soaking for 24 hrs (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 81 (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  226 days (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  The tree is rarely raised artificially (FRI, 1985). Fresh seeds are sown in germination trays and the seedlings are pricked out to polythene containers (Chacko et al.,2002).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Diseases  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Medicinal properties 
Uses  Wood is commonly known as Royal timber of Travancore; used for carving, turnery for making walking sticks, cabinet work and also sports good (Purkayastha, 1996). The timber is valuable in the fancy wood market. It is mostly used for ornamental carving and turnery for making walking sticks and also veneers, sports goods, cabinetwork, keys of pianos, and musical and mathematical instruments. The fruit is edible (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Wood properties  The wood is usually black or grey or greyish brown, rarely yellowish or red. It is a very hard and very heavy wood with straight to somewhat irregularly wavy grain and fine texture (Purkayastha, 1996).
References  Get ...
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