Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.
Vernacular name  Eucaly (Malayalam) (Chacko et al., 2002).
Common name  River red gum (Chacko et al., 2002).
Synonyms  Eucalyptus rostrata Schlecht; E. longirostris F. Muell. ex Miq. (Chacko et al., 2002).
Family  Myrtaceae
Origin  Australia.
Distribution  Native of Australia and is widely planted in many parts India (Luna, 1996). In Kerala, it is raised in plantations on a small scale (Chacko et al., 2002).
Description  Fast growing, tall evergreen tree attaining a height of 50 m and a breast height diameter up to 200 cm (Chacko et al.,2002).
Flowering season  June to July.
Fruiting season  December to January; November to January (Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flowers are white, globose, heads 1 cm in diameter, solitary or in small bunches.
Fruits  Fruit is a loculicidal capsule. Fruit pedicellate, 6 to 8 mm x 4 to 6 mm, hemispherical to globular, valves incurved, usually 4, exserted, disc wide and convex (Luna, 1996; Chacko et al., 2002).
Fruit type  Capsule.
Seeds  Seeds small, many, angulars.
Seed length  No information (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  2,60,000 to 4,00,000 seeds/kg (Kindt et al.,1997; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  The twigs bearing capsules. The capsules are lopped off and the capsules are collected on a tarpaulin (FRI, 1984; Kumar and Bhanja, 1992; Chacko et al., 2002).
Transportation of seeds  The capsules with branches are transported in cloth bags (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed processing  Capsules are dried in shade for a day or two. Seeds are separated from the capsules by shaking the dehised capsules, dried and stored in a cool dry place (FRI, 1984; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Orthodox (Kindt et al., 1997; CABI, 1998). Seeds are viable for 2 to 3 years if kept in airtight containers stored in a cool dry place (Dutta, 1986; Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seeds are viable for 2 to 3 years (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  Low (Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed pre treatment  Soaking the seeds in hot water for a minute followed by soaking in cold water for 24 hrs(Kindt et al.,1997; Chacko et al., 2002). 100 ppm GA3 treatment positively influence both germination and seedling vigour indices (Bhattacharyya et al., 1991).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination percentage  55 to 90 (Carlowitz, 1991; Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  7 to 20 days (Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in germination trays containing perlite medium, or on 12 mm thick polyurethane foam sheets maintained moist in an aluminium tray of 35 x 45 cm (Chacko and Muhammad, 1986). Germination takes place with 5 to 15 days. When the seedlings attain 5 cm of height, they are pricked out into polybags of 20 x 10 cm size filled with potting mixture (Chacko et al., 2002).
Method of propagation  Seedlings.
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  Nil (Chacko et al., 2002).
Diseases  Low. Fusarium semitectum was the important seed pathogen (Mohanan and Sharma, 1991; Chacko et al., 2002).
Medicinal properties  The gum is occasionally used in diarrhoea, relaxed throats and astringent in dentistry, cuts etc.
Uses  The plant is valued as bee posturage. The leaves contain volatile oil. Wood is used for fuel, charcoal, posts, poles, hardboard, saw-timber and pulp (Chacko et al; 2002).
Wood properties  Wood is hard and strong. Heartwood a dark reddish brown and sapwood is pale greyish brown.
References  Get ...
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