Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Acacia planifrons Wt. & Arn.
Vernacular name  Kudavelam (Malayalam) (Sasidharan, 2004), Kodaivelam, Odai (Tamil) (Bose et al., 1998).
Common name  Umbrella thorn (Bose et al., 1998).
Synonyms  Acacia latronum
Family  Leguminosae
Subfamily  Mimosoideae
Distribution  Common and often gregarious in the S. Indian Peninsula; found in the South Deccan, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, etc.
Description  A small to moderate sized tree up to 8 m high, with a flat, spreading, dense umbrella like crown (CSIR, 1948; Bose et al., 1998).
Flowering season  January to March (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruiting season  July-August (Khullar et al., 1991).
Flowers  Flower heads 6-8 mm across, yellow in bud stage, white when open, in clusters, in the axils of mature branchlets; flowers 2 mm across, calyx tube 5 lobed, 1 mm long; petals 5, cream cloured, 2 mm long, stamens numerous (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruits  Narrow, ligulate (CSIR, 1948), glabrous, nearly cylindric, pointed at the ends and 5-6 cm long (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type  Pods.
Seed length 
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  25000/Kg (Khullar et al., 1991; Srivastava et al., 2006).
Seed dispersal 
Seed Collection  Seeds are collected in June-August (Srivastava et al., 2006).
Transportation of seeds 
Seed processing 
Seed storage  Seeds are orthodox and low temperature storage is recommended (Srivastava et al., 2006).
Viability period  1 year (Srivastava et al., 2006).
Seed emptiness 
Seed pre treatment  Seeds are scarified by stirring with 160 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid per kg of seed for 25 min (Natarajan and Rai, 1986; Srivastava et al., 2006).
Germination type  Epigeal.
Germination percentage  40-50% (Srivastava et al., 2006).
Germination period  6-10 days (Khullar et al., 1991).
Nursery technique  Combination of 6.75 kg N/100 000 seedlings along with Rhizobium and VAM inoculation has a pronounced effect on seedling growth, nodulation and enzyme activities (Backiyavathy et al., 2005). Co-inoculation of AM fungi and Rhizobium sp. increase the growth, biomass and nutrient uptake of A. planifrons more than the single inoculations of AM fungi or Rhizobium sp. Seedlings inoculated with AM fungi and Rhizobium sp. show higher accumulation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) than un-inoculated controls. The seedlings inoculated with triple root symbionts, G. fasciculatum+G. geosporum+ Rhizobium sp. show good growth and nodular biomass production. Lower root to shoot ratios and increased seedling quality index are also obtained in these combinations (Karthikeyan and Muthukumar, 2006). Polybag seedlings treated with different NPK fertilizer and micronutrient (B, Mo, Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn) doses reduce the planting stock production period (seedlings normally need to be kept for 4-6 months to attain a plantable height) (Chinnathurai et al., 1997).
Method of propagation 
Vegetative propagation 
Medicinal properties 
Uses  The wood is hard and heavy. It is used for agricultural implements and other purposes. The pods contain tannin. They serve as fodder for cattle and goats. The tree has been recorded as a host for lac insect (CSIR, 1948).
Wood properties  Wood is hard, sapwood white and heartwood is red. Pores are small and larged (Gamble, 1922).
References  Get ...
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