Online Manual for the Forest Tree Seeds of Kerala

A Kerala Forest Department Funded Project

Dr. K Sudhakara
Professor & Head of the Department
Dept. of Silviculture & Agroforestry
College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656
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Scientific Name  Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsd.
Vernacular name  Manjakadambu, Veembu (Malayalam) (Sasidharan, 2004); Bandaru, Manjakadambi (Tamil).
Common name  Haldu (Chacko et al.,2002).
Synonyms  Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hk. f. ex Brand.; Nauclea cordifolia (Roxb.) (Chacko et al.,2002; Sasidharan, 2004).
Family  Rubiaceae
Distribution  Occurs throughout the greater parts of India and Myanmar, also in the dry regions of Sri Lanka (FRI 1985). In Kerala, it occurs in the moist deciduous forests up to 450 m (Chacko et al.,2002).
Description  Large deciduous tree attaining a height of more than 40 m and a breast height diameter of 76 cm (Chacko et al.,2002).
Flowering season  June to September (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruiting season  October to January (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al., 2002).
Flowers  Flower heads yellow, 2-2.5 cm diameter, peduncled 5 to 10 cm long, calyx and corolla densely pubescent.
Fruits  Fruit aggregate of capsules, about 12 mm in diameter (Bose et al., 1998).
Fruit type  Capsule.
Seeds  Seed are oblong minute, brown, shortly winged.
Seed length  0.15 to 0.3 cm (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed width 
Seed thickness 
Seed weight  90,00,000 to 1,30,00,000 seeds/kg (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed dispersal  Animals.
Seed Collection  The ripe fruits (heads) which are yellowish black are collected from the trees by lopping off branches (Chacko et al.,2002).
Transportation of seeds  The heads are packed in cotton bags and transported to the processing centre as quickly as possible (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed processing  The heads are dried in the sun and when dry, are broken up and immersed in water to separate the seeds from the husk. The heavier seeds settle at the bottom and the husk floating on water are removed by decantation. The seeds are then dried and cleaned by winnowing (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed storage  Most probably orthodox. The cleaned seeds can be stored in sealed plastic or aluminium tins for one year (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Viability period  Seeds are viable up to one year in sealed tins (FRI, 1985; Chacko et al., 2002).
Seed emptiness  Low (Chacko et al.,2002).
Seed pre treatment  Not required (Chacko et al.,2002). Soak in water for 12 hrs, then dry slightly to facilitate sowing. Some after-ripening may be required ( Edwards and Naithani, 1999).
Germination type  Epigeal (Chacko et al.,2002).
Germination percentage  Up to 90 (Sen Gupta, 1937; Chacko et al., 2002).
Germination period  10 to 15 days (Kumar and Bhanja, 1992; Chacko et al., 2002).
Nursery technique  Seeds are sown in germination trays filled with vermiculite or on moist polyurethane foam. Seedlings are pricked out into 22.5 x 17.5 cm polythene bags filled with potting mixture (Chacko et al.,2002).
Method of propagation  By coppice shoots
Vegetative propagation 
Pests  No information (Chacko et al.,2002).
Diseases  Low (10 to 16%). Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium sp., Penicillium spp. are the storage moulds recorded on seeds. Fusarium sp. is the important field fungi associated with the discoloured seeds (Mohanan and Sharma, 1991; Chacko et al., 2001).
Medicinal properties  The bark is acrid and bitter and it is used in biliousness. The root is used as an astringent in dysentery (Bose et al., 1998).
Uses  It is one of the most popular timber for turnery articles and is largely used for toys, handles of chisels, files and screw drivers. It is also used for folding chairs and camp furniture and household fitments. Leaves are used as a fodder. Chloroform extract of H. cordifolia stems contains 7-Hydroxycoumarin and it shows moderate inhibition of H+/K+ ATPase activity (Kasinadhuni et al., 1999).
Wood properties  Sapwood is pale yellow, gradually merges into deep yellow heartwood, which turns brownish or reddish yellow on ageing. It is moderately hard, yellow and lustrous, usually with a straight or interlocked grain. Weight about 689 kg/m3.
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